Indian cell phone infrastructure - to 3g or not to 3g - mobile-cell-phone
To most overseas investors circa 1994, a first look at the Indian Telecommunication Document appeared to assuage concerns. In our naivetť, we likely this Certificate to put India at least on par with China where a domineering regime governed telecommunications. A disastrous implementation nevertheless ensured India languished after its national on tele-density, cellular usage and broadband coverage.
Fortunately, later developments like the Unified Licensing Scheme, albeit a reactionary rejoinder to measures threatening to overwhelm TRAI (the Regulator), do pull Indian de-regulation ahead of even spaces like Hong Kong where a unified scenario is only just being discussed. Intrinsic worth of detail aspects of de-regulation notwithstanding, the overseas financier expects to see a clear roadmap ahead if the become more intense in permissible FDI to 74% has to hold any meaning. The contemporary embarrassing situation on the hope of the 1900MHz band is an brilliant opening for TRAI to use the controversy to draw up accurately such a map.
Of equal alarm to the exotic patron and a bit on which operators on both sides of the GSM-CDMA allot concur, is the demise of high margin demand. The forthcoming holds a long slog mounting for every rupee amplify to the ARPU (Average Revenue per User). Construction it more exciting is the ineffectuality of former booming consequence and marketing strategies under today's margin conditions. Additionally when one last looked, the control had its hand in the till for an unbelievable 22-25% of revenues in the form of abandon fees, revenue share and a back accredit fee by means of a devious "spectrum usage charge". Add the Admittance Dearth Accusation (ADC) payment being paid out to the Dominant carter BSNL and one cannot blame some investors for locale aside their calculators and course for the door.
With cellular album rates at abysmal levels credit to the pseudo-WLL/CDMA roll outs, the cellular operators look at further infrastructure funds with trepidation. However, innovative value-added army being one of the few ways to bump up ARPUs out of their funk, invest they must. How brightly they do so, decides their fate.
The 2003-04 EDGE (Enhanced Data for GSM Evolution) exploitation by some GSM operators is the sort of rejoinder one hoped to see. Cost for practical purposes as long as three times the data amount of GPRS, EDGE gives operators like Bharti, Hutch and IDEA the approach approach to offer innovative in sequence and entertainment based services, as well as economically venture into rural areas. Using the same TDMA (Time Boundary Numerous Access) frame arrangement as GSM, EDGE allows obtainable cell plans to linger intact. On the other hand it uses a new lilt conspiracy that is also used for UMTS/3G. This makes it a sort of half-way house to 3G, for those still brave a sufficient amount to contemplate that option. Conversely while EDGE was a smart decision, the jury is still out on 3G.
Emulating European cellular operators whose track best belies such faith, some Indian cellular carriers have all the same on track chalking out transition paths towards that Holy Grail. Even if the anthology rates in India were not as dismal as they are, deploying 3G could be a calamity coming up to happen. It was educational as a result when the Indian IT Minister avowed last year that India aims to leapfrog to fourth-generation wireless technology, skipping 3G as it has not been found cost-effective. This is one of the rare occasions when the commerce is well served by listening to its Minister.
However these are mere words until the Admirable Minister first unfetters VOIP (Voice-over-IP). If not the chastity belt about VOIP networks is discarded and they are acceptable to combine with the PSTN, India is going to tie itself into knots over 4G, exclusive which by the way, the invasive theme is IP. Existing exterior India one customarily lags after relating events, but to the best of my data even today the VOIP - PSTN be linked incredibly, continue illegal.
One beneficial outcome to the 1996 failure surrounding the bids for regional circles has been an all about reluctance to bear in mind added auctions, as well as for 3G. This saved Indian operators from the fate of their European counterparts. While Europe's 3G authority fees did nonentity to assure a hope for the technology, emerging OFDMA (WiFi/ WiMax MMDS) alternatives may very well bring the coup de grace. Doesn't matter what the counter-arguments out there, the fact that 3G air force in The UK still remedy to distress sales of basic voice army to collect a patron base, says it all.
Unlike EDGE, going 3G does not just affect software upgrades and the math becomes more discouraging by instructions of magnitude. For starters, the air-interface/ frame build up (WCDMA as adjacent to TDMA) is entirely different. This means changes at every cell-site in the network. And then of course of action there is the intact finances essential to inter-operate with offered 2G essentials of the network.
An different in spite of this does exist, that until in recent times dare not speak its name for fear of the Telecommunication establishment.
Contrary to denial press stemming basically from the large cellular operators, it's likely to co-opt Wireless LANs (WLANs) into one eco-system with cellular networks. An EDGE-enabled cellular complex patched into WLAN (WiFi/WiMax) networks in high density locations could allow Indian operators to cede high-speed data military with laser precision faithfully where necessary and at far less costs than in 3G-ing a comparable area. I trust this is akin to what the IT Minister has in mind. Additionally, such meshed exchange ideas could endow with covered voice connectivity over cell phones in broadband-enabled locations with poor cellular reception.
An attractive twist comes from the contemporary secret WiMax operation in Japan by Vodafone and away by other pergola 3G operators, vidicating the arrangement taken in this paper.
The cellular worker may have to offer another fixed line/broadband type charge structures in these locations, raising fears that they would eat into cellular revenues, But one has to awe how much of the generated travel would characterize cannibalized revenue and how much would bring in incremental dollars from interchange presently going any way over fixed/wireless broadband and over the altered flavors of Voice over Broadband (VoB) armed forces used increasingly from exactly such locations.
No one touts OFDMA air-interfaces as an another to WCDMA /3G. It's the integration of the two technologies that creates a potentially captivating alternative, in particular in the Indian context. Integrating chosen WLAN Hot spots into a cellular exchange ideas requires an IP Exchange ideas Controller (INC), an IP admission network, a patch to allow the WLAN approach arrangement to issue the applicable accounting in order to the cellular AAA (authentication, authorization, and accounting) head waiter and an investment in IP roaming. Barring a few more widgets, that's effectively it.
Given the comparative simplicity of this solution, a person who has seen engineers sweat over cell site employment in congested locations has to admiration why the operators have not before now adopted WLAN to enhance cellular coverage on the cheap.
Costs aside, there is an attention-grabbing appearance of 3G know-how that could force operators to believe OFDMA based options to bump up cellular data administration systems. It may not be customary knowledge, but 3G differs from 2G (GSM) in one chief characteristic - the interdependence of complex quality. In 2G, high passage in one scene tends to bring in poor attribute in just the exact cell cover that location. In 3G however, the bad condition also impacts surrounding cells since a cell size may vary depending on the transfer load it carries. Called "cell-breathing" this is due to the interdependence connecting amount and coverage over WCDMA air-interfaces and could end up impacting voice quality.
No ceremony giver however, is going to lay on the line voice attribute and capability for the sake of data. This implies there are qualities to a break free data-centric network. And if such options are obtainable at least at the peripheries, at costs substantially lower than the vaunted 3G and if these options arrive on the scene slated to be converted into the barrier of forthcoming 4G data approach mechanisms, it then absolutely behooves the Indian cellular operative not to adopt the same fixed idea that's the feature of his European counterpart and to look acutely at a GSM/EDGE-WLAN based solution.
It baffles why as an alternative of prevaricating, the European and American cellular companies haven't swooped in and massively sequestered wireless contact for IP interchange from the disjointed but potentially astounding WLAN and Voice over Broadband (VoB) players. After all, at least for now the cellular worker holds all the cards. Only he gets to conclude whether the client receives a collective cellular + WLAN bill. This gives his collective cellular-WLAN advantage a killer help over any other Fixed/wireless broadband or Vonage-type VoB offering. By now the cellular operators could have usurped great chunks of IP travel and decimated the insignificant person VoB players beforehand they ever took root. Alternatively, just a declaration of intent could have the WLAN & VoB players scurrying to negotiate connect and revenue share agreements on terms that could only be beneficial to the cellular operator.
It's too noticeable a scenario and one doesn't count on such lack of forethought to last. T-Mobile's broad WiFi consumption in the USA and in Europe is actually with such an end-game in mind. And so was, we hope, the moral IT Minister's intention, when he squared off alongside 3G.
BRAHAM SINGH attached PCCW in January 2001 and founded their global IP backbone & assistance ballet company now called BtNAccess after its combination with Corporate Access, one of Asia's chief satellite based assistance provider. Today, BtNAccess is an reputable international carrier, present activity & hauler grade armed forces over its MPLS enabled network. Army accessible comprise IP transit, MPLS data circuits/VPNs, voice as well as a most important edge Hosted IP PBX services. The Ballet company is interrelated with 35 carriers globally and its revenues come from an venture and hauler consumer base in The USA, Europe, Average East, Africa and Asia.
Braham came to PCCW from Teleglobe, where he was the Vice Head in allege of Asian operations. Prior to Teleglobe, Braham was the Vice Head - SE Asia for Dash / Comprehensive One.
Braham has a choice of original achievements to his accept counting the first call- back as well as the first ISR launch in Hong Kong, the first Asian frame relay launch external Japan, the first worldwide connectivity provided to Celcom in Malaysia in 1992.
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